The most accepted theory on the origin of eukaryotic life is that an archaea host cell and a bacteria merged to become the first eukaryotic cell. The archaeal linage 'Asgard' encodes proteins only found in eukaryotes. A member of this clade was first isolated in 2020 after a 12-year effort. pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3…
Drawing out a universal tree of life and finding a last common ancestor for all bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes have become even more colossal tasks in the last decades, due to the extensive amount of horizontal gene transfer that we now know can occur both within and between the three domains. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tre…
Organisms that live around hydrothermal vents do not rely on sunlight and photosynthesis. Instead, archaea, the first living organisms in existence, use a process called chemosynthesis to reduce toxic minerals and chemicals into nutrients.Without them, no multicellular life would exist on Earth. ocean.si.edu/ecosystems/d…
Bacteriophages are viruses that prey on bacteria and archaea, and some hope that phage therapy might one day be a useful alternate to antibiotics as antibiotic resistance becomes a bigger problem in treating deadly diseases en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bac…
There is a massive subterranean biosphere estimated to contain life approaching double the volume of all oceans. About 70% of Earth's bacteria and archaea live here. These microbes are often very different from surface cousins, with life cycles on near-geologic timescales. deepcarbon.net/life-deep-…
There is a group of single-celled organisms called Asgard archaea, Lokiarchaeum, named after the Arctic Ocean geothermal vent, Loki's Castle, where they were discovered. They are considered to be the missing link in the evolution of the cell, which separates eukaryotes like humans from bacteria. nature.com/articles/s4158…
Around 57% of our body's cells are not human cells but microbes viz Bacteria, viruses, fungi and archaea bbc.com/news/health-43674…
Instead of replicating and destroying the host cell, a large DNA virus could take control of the host bacterial or archaea cell, remain within the cell, thus overcoming the tradeoff dilemma typically faced by viruses i.e. eventually killing and dying with the host cell. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vir…
Unexplained 'Biological Dark Matter ' exists in the human genome, that does not fall under the three existing domains of life: bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/B…
An Archaea microbe named "Strain 121" can survive and reproduce at 121 degrees Celsius - the same temperature that autoclaves reach to sterilize lab materials. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Str…
There is a species of archaea that is able to grow at -0.06 pH. It is the most acidophilic organisms known to date. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pic…
Scientists observed the transition of unicellular yeast to multicellularity by repeatedly separating cells by gravity and collecting the cells settled at the bottom of the tubes. The cells eventually formed clusters and subsequent genetic mutations favored the clusters over the individual cells. pnas.org/content/109/5/15…
All life on Earth shares a common ancestor called LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) from which every living organism has descended. LUCA is estimated to have lived over 3 billion years ago. actionbioscience.org/evol…

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