In 1961 Leonid Rogozov was stationed at the Novolazarevskaya Camp in Antarctica. He was the only doctor in a group of 13 researchers stationed there from 1960 to 1962. During this time he diagnosed himself with peritonitis and concluded his appendix must be removed. At this time he was the only doctor in 1000 miles of the camp, an weather and lack of aircraft prevented the possibility of any other doctors being able to reach Rogozov in time. So using local anaesthesia, he removed his own appendix. Some other workers from the camp assisted him by holding mirrors and instruments, but the entire surgery was performed by Rogozov himself. The operation was a success and he recovered fully.
EDIT: Here's a link to my sources, since I apparently failed at that the first time around. http://englishrussia.com/2009/12/21/leonid-rogozov-%E2%80%93-a-hero-surgeon/ http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b4965.full